前缀para- (par-)词源、意思和例词

  前缀para-来源于拉丁语,前缀para-原是一个希腊介词,它主要与希腊语源的词根相结合,一般构成名词,其基本意思是“beside(旁),near(近)。”,par- 是para-的异体,它只出现在元音字母或h的词根之前。para-与少量的单词相缀合,这时,其意思相当于related to (有关),supplementary to (辅助),subordinate to (副)等。含有前缀para-的单词多是科技术语。除了有“beside”意思外,同时还有大部分前缀所共有的“intensive”的含义。

para- (1)
  before vowels, par-, word-forming element meaning "alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal," from Greek para- from para (prep.) "beside, near, issuing from, against, contrary to," from PIE *prea, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per). Cognate with Old English for- "off, away."

para- (2)
  word-forming element meaning "defense, protection against; that which protects from," from Italian para, imperative of parare "to ward off," from Latin parare "make ready" (see pare).

下面重点看一下para- 的主要意思“beside”。

  1.在…旁边,和…并肩

    paradigm, paragon, paranoia, parabola

  2.脱离...

   paradox, parachute, paralysis, parasol

  另外,前缀para-还有一个变形par-[在元音字母前]

   parody, paroxysm

例词:
1.parody  [par<para(=beside)+od (=song)向旁边唱歌]
  n. writing intended to amuse by imitating the style of writing used by someone else; weak imitation  讽刺性模仿诗文、戏文;拙劣的模仿
  vt. make a parody of 拙劣地模仿;讽刺性地改编  parodist  嘲讽性模仿诗文的作者
  ex) At Jim's retirement dinner,his colleagues prasented aparody of his work life.
    在吉姆的退休欢送宴上,他的同事上演了一出根据他的职场生涯改编的诙谐剧。

2.paradox  [para( =beside, apart from)  + dox( =opinion)脱离关于某事物的一般观点]
  n. statement that seems to say something opposite to common sense or the truth,but which may contain a truth  白相矛盾的话;悖论
    paradoxical 悖论的;矛盾的;似是而非的
  ex) Although an apparent paradox, when lighting is reduced in factories,productivity increases.
    虽然这看上去很矛盾,不过在工厂减少照明时,生产率却提高了。

3.parasite  [para( =beside) +sit( =food,grain)在旁边只减少食物的人]
  n. animal or plant living on or in another and getting its food from it;person supported by another and giving him nothing in return 寄生的动植物;寄生虫;食客  parasitic/parasitical 寄生的;寄食的;食客的
  ex) He lives like a parasite.他像寄生虫一样活着。

4.parable  [para ( =beside) +bl<bol ( =throw)向旁边投掷]
  n. simple story designed to teach a morallesson  寓言,比喻
  parabolical比喻的;寓肓似的
  ex) According to the Bible, Jesus taught his followers with parables.
  据<圣经>记载,耶稣用寓言来教导他的信徒。

5.parallelism  [par<para(=beside,side by side)+all( =other)相互不同的两个东西并列存在]
  n. the state of never meeting because always at the same distance from each other; similarity 平行;一致,对应;类似
  parallel平行的:平行线;相似(物).可以匹敌的事物;纬线;平行;匹敌,类似
  parallelogram 平行四边形
  ex) There's distinct parallelism in the personal histories of my best friend and myself.
   看看我最亲近的朋友和我自己,我们的过去有着明显的相似之处。

6.paramount  [(para( =beside) +mount( =hill,mountain)在山坡、山旁边的]
  adj. supreme or superior in power; pre-eminent; chief  拥有最高权力的.最高的,至上的;卓越的;主要的,量重要的
  paramountcy 最高权威;至上;卓越
  ex)Childhood vaccinations are of paramount importance to prevent terrible diseases.
   从小接种疫苗对预防重大疾病至关重要。

7.paragon  [para( =beside) +gon( =compare, test, angle)来到旁边成为比较的对象]
  n. a model or pattern of perfection or excellence 模范,榜样,典型.典范
  ex)Priests are supposed to be paragons of virtue, though that's not always so.
   牧师被认为是美德的典范,尽管实际上并不总是如此。

8.paraphrase  [para( =beside) +phras( =say)向旁边说]
  n. restatement of the meaning of a piece of writing in other words  改写,意译
  vt. express in a paraphrase 解释,意译
  ex) You should footnote the original source even when you paraphrase a passage
  即便是用自己的话来解释某段文章,也应该加上脚注,标明原文出处。

9.paraoxysm  [par<para( =intensive) +oxy( =sharp acid)变得非常尖锐]
  n. sudden attack or outburst of pain, anger, laughter, etc.; sudden attack of a disease, usually recurring periodically (愤怒、笑声等的)突然爆发;(周期性疾病的)发作
  ex)A paroxysm of rage overtook her and she began shouting at the students.
    她突然发怒了,开始对掌生们高声喊起来。

10.parameter  [para( =beside) +meter( =measure)向旁边量]
  n. characteristic or determining feature 参数,参变量
  ex) The company is always expanding the parameters of its product offerings.
    公司经常扩大商品供给的参数。

11.paragraph  [para-(beside 旁);graph (=to write 写)→ " a stroke written beside the beginning of a passage 一段文章开头时,在旁边做的记号 " →]
  n.a group of sentences that belong together 段落
  ex) The first paragraph  is the most important in a composition.
    文章的第一段是最重要的。

  paragraphic  adj.分段的

12.paralogism  [para-(beside 旁);logism (=reasoning 推论)→" reasoning beside the point 不中肯的推论"→]
  n. a piece of false or erroneous  reasoning 不合逻辑的推论;谬论
  ex) His essay is based on a paralogism.  他的论文是建立在不合逻辑的推论上的。

  paralogize  v. 作谬误推论

13.paralysis  [para-(beside 旁);lysis (=to loosen 松驰)→"(the body)loosening beside (身体)一边松驰无力”→]
  n. lessening or loss of the power or sensation in any part of the body 瘫痪;麻痹
  ex)The accident left him with paralysis of the legs. 那场事故使他下肢瘫痪了。

  paralyse  v. 使瘫痪,使麻痹

14.parenthesis  [par-(para-) = beside 在...旁;en- = in 进;thesis (=put 放)→ " put a word or mark in beside a word 在单词旁边放进一个单词或记号"→]
  n. 插入语;圆括号
  ex)Don't use too many parenthesis in your article. 在文章中别用太多的插入语。
     Please put these two words in parenthesis. 请将这两个词放在圆括号里。

  parenthesize  v. 将...作插入语;把...放入括号里

15.parish  [par-(para-) = beside 在...旁;ish (=dwelling 住宅)→ " dwellings near a church 教堂附近的住户 "→]
  n. 教区
  ex)The minister often makes the rounds of his parish and visits the sick. 牧师经常巡视他的教区并探望病人。

16.parody  [par-(para-) = beside 在...旁;ody (=song 歌) → " a song or writing beside a serious one 与严肃作品对比的歌曲或文字" →]
  n. 模仿滑稽的作品
  ex)Parodies and caricatures are the most penetrating of criticisms. 滑稽性模仿与讽刺性漫画是最尖锐的批评。

  parodist  n.模仿他人作滑稽作品的人

17.parhelion  [par-(para-) = beside 在...旁;helion(=the sun 太阳) →" a sun beside the sun 太阳旁边的太阳 "→]
  n.幻日,假日(日晕上的光轮)
  ex) Parhelion is caused by the refraction of sunlight through ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere. 幻日是由于阳光通过悬浮在大气中的冰晶所折射而成的。

  parhelic  adj.幻日的

18.paraprofessional  [para- (=subordinate to 附属...的);professional 专业人员 → " subordinate to a professional 从属于专业人员的"→]
  n.辅助专职人员的人
  ex) In that school,regular teachers together with paraprofessionals (mostly mothers) help the children in reading and writin. 在那所学校里,正规教员与辅助人员(大多数是母亲)一起帮助小孩学文化。

19.paratyphoid  [para- (=related to 与... 有关的);typhoid  伤寒 →]
  n. a bacterial disease resembling typhoid fever but usually milder 副伤寒
  ex)The doctor treated it as paratyphoid fever. 医生将这病当副伤寒处理。