后缀-ive含义、词源和词例

汉:形容词及名词后缀ive意为"relating to,having the quality of,tending to ,that which"。  源自拉丁语的-ive是英语中最重要的形容词后缀之一。与表示行为的名词后缀-ion一样,-ive加缀在动词或动词词根后,构成相应形容词,表示与该行为有关的性质与倾向等,其意思相当于英语的现在分词后缀-ing(...的)或having to do with~ing (与...有关的);having the quality of ~ing(具有...性质的);tending to or likely to ~(倾向于做...的)。由于拉丁构词的影响,-ive还有-ative,itive 等异体。


英:sufix forming adjectives from verbs, meaning "pertaining to, tending to," in some cases from Old French -if, but usually directly from Latin -ivus. In some words borrowed from French at an early date it has been reduced to -y (e.g. hasty, tardy).

一.形容词后缀:表示有...性质的、有...作用的、有...倾向的、属于...的

1.abusive
  adj.using insults and curses;of wrong use 辱骂的,虐待的;滥用的 *ab(=away),us(=use)
  例句:We urged her to leave her abusive husband.我们极力劝说她离开虐待她的丈夫。

2.cohesive
  adj.having the power of cohering;tending to cohere 有黏着力的;附着性的 *co<com(=together),hes (=stick)
  例句:Mr.Thomson built a cohesive opposition group from seven minor opposition parties.汤姆森先生将七个小反对党组建一个具有凝聚力的反对党集团。

3.diminutive
  adj.very small 微小的 *di<dis(=apart),min<mini(=small)
  例句:To an observer in an airplane high over the city,the largest buildings seem diminutive.坐飞机从城市上空向下看时,最高的建筑也显得很渺小。

二.名词后缀

  1.表示人
  detective 侦察,密探; native 本地人,土人;representative 代表;native 本地人,土人世间;progressive 进步人士;executive 执行者。

  2.表示物
  locomotive 火车头,机车;anticorrosive 防腐蚀剂 ;explosive 炸药,爆炸物;preventive 预防药 ; directive 指令 ;olive 橄榄树。
  3.构成抽象名词
  motive 动机 ; initiative 创造,发端;offensive 攻势 ; perspective 透视,眼力;subjunctive 虚拟语气 ;alternative 取舍,抉择。